Phenomenology of convection-parameterization closure 1GAME/CNRS, UMR3589, CNRS-INSU-Météo France, Toulouse, France
18 Apr 2013
2Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
3Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Split, Split, Croatia
4Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (Dept R&D), Brussels, Belgium
5School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
*For contribution to Sect. 2.
Received: 15 Jun 2012 – Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 28 Sep 2012 Abstract. Closure is a problem of defining the convective intensity in a given
parameterization. In spite of many years of efforts and progress, it
is still considered an overall unresolved problem. The present
article reviews this problem from phenomenological perspectives.
Revised: 14 Mar 2013 – Accepted: 20 Mar 2013 – Published: 18 Apr 2013
The physical variables that may contribute in defining the
convective intensity are listed, and their statistical significances
identified by observational data analyses are reviewed. A possibility
is discussed for identifying a correct closure hypothesis by
performing a linear stability analysis of tropical
convectively coupled waves with various different closure hypotheses.
Various individual theoretical issues are considered from various
The review also emphasizes that the dominant
physical factors controlling convection differ between the tropics and
extra-tropics, as well as between oceanic and land areas.
Both observational as well as theoretical analyses, often focused on
the tropics, do not necessarily lead to conclusions consistent with
our operational experiences focused on midlatitudes. Though we
emphasize the importance of the interplays between these
observational, theoretical and operational perspectives, we also face
challenges for establishing a solid research framework that is
An energy cycle framework is suggested as such a candidate.
Citation: Yano, J.-I., Bister, M., Fuchs, Ž., Gerard, L., Phillips, V. T. J., Barkidija, S., and Piriou, J.-M.: Phenomenology of convection-parameterization closure, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4111-4131, doi:10.5194/acp-13-4111-2013, 2013.