1ECMWF, Reading, UK
2DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
3UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Université Versailles St-Quentin, CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, Paris, France
4BIRA-IASB, Brussels, Belgium
5King's College London, London, UK
6NOAA/ESRL and CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA
7Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany
8KNMI, De Bilt, the Netherlands
9Max-Planck-Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
10IUP-Bremen, Bremen, Germany
11Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany
12Research Center for Atmospheric Physics and Climatology, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece
13EEWRC, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus
14Spectroscopie de l'Atmosphère, Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Brussels, Belgium
15Université de Toulouse, UPS, LA (Laboratoire d'Aérologie), Toulouse, France
16CNRS, LA (Laboratoire d'Aérologie), UMR5560, Toulouse, France
Received: 08 Oct 2012 – Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 05 Dec 2012
Abstract. An eight-year long reanalysis of atmospheric composition data covering the period 2003–2010 was constructed as part of the FP7-funded Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate project by assimilating satellite data into a global model and data assimilation system. This reanalysis provides fields of chemically reactive gases, namely carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, and formaldehyde, as well as aerosols and greenhouse gases globally at a horizontal resolution of about 80 km for both the troposphere and the stratosphere. This paper describes the assimilation system for the reactive gases and presents validation results for the reactive gas analysis fields to document the data set and to give a first indication of its quality.
Revised: 20 Mar 2013 – Accepted: 21 Mar 2013 – Published: 18 Apr 2013
Tropospheric CO values from the MACC reanalysis are on average 10–20% lower than routine observations from commercial aircrafts over airports through most of the troposphere, and have larger negative biases in the boundary layer at urban sites affected by air pollution, possibly due to an underestimation of CO or precursor emissions.
Stratospheric ozone fields from the MACC reanalysis agree with ozonesondes and ACE-FTS data to within ±10% in most seasons and regions. In the troposphere the reanalysis shows biases of −5% to +10% with respect to ozonesondes and aircraft data in the extratropics, but has larger negative biases in the tropics. Area-averaged total column ozone agrees with ozone fields from a multi-sensor reanalysis data set to within a few percent.
NO2 fields from the reanalysis show the right seasonality over polluted urban areas of the NH and over tropical biomass burning areas, but underestimate wintertime NO2 maxima over anthropogenic pollution regions and overestimate NO2 in northern and southern Africa during the tropical biomass burning seasons.
Tropospheric HCHO is well simulated in the MACC reanalysis even though no satellite data are assimilated. It shows good agreement with independent SCIAMACHY retrievals over regions dominated by biogenic emissions with some anthropogenic input, such as the eastern US and China, and also over African regions influenced by biogenic sources and biomass burning.
Inness, A., Baier, F., Benedetti, A., Bouarar, I., Chabrillat, S., Clark, H., Clerbaux, C., Coheur, P., Engelen, R. J., Errera, Q., Flemming, J., George, M., Granier, C., Hadji-Lazaro, J., Huijnen, V., Hurtmans, D., Jones, L., Kaiser, J. W., Kapsomenakis, J., Lefever, K., Leitão, J., Razinger, M., Richter, A., Schultz, M. G., Simmons, A. J., Suttie, M., Stein, O., Thépaut, J.-N., Thouret, V., Vrekoussis, M., Zerefos, C., and the MACC team: The MACC reanalysis: an 8 yr data set of atmospheric composition, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4073-4109, doi:10.5194/acp-13-4073-2013, 2013.