Investigation of gaseous and particulate emissions from various marine vessel types measured on the banks of the Elbe in Northern Germany 1Particle Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
02 Apr 2013
2Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany
Received: 25 July 2012 – Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 29 August 2012 Abstract. Measurements of the ambient aerosol, various trace gases and meteorological
quantities using a mobile laboratory (MoLa) were performed on the banks of
the Lower Elbe in an emission control area (ECA) which is passed by numerous
private and commercial marine vessels reaching and leaving the port of
Hamburg, Germany. From 25–29 April 2011 a total of 178 vessels were probed
at a distance of about 0.8–1.2 km with high temporal resolution. 139 ship
emission plumes were of sufficient quality to be analyzed further and to
determine emission factors (EFs).
Revised: 27 February 2013 – Accepted: 28 February 2013 – Published: 02 April 2013
Concentrations of aerosol number and mass as well as polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAH) and black carbon were measured in PM1 and size
distribution instruments covered the diameter range from 6 nm up to
32 μm. The chemical composition of the non-refractory submicron aerosol
was measured by means of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Aerodyne HR-ToF-AMS).
Gas phase species analyzers monitored various trace gases (O3,
SO2, NO, NO2, CO2) in the air and a weather station provided
wind, precipitation, solar radiation data and other quantities. Together with
ship information for each vessel obtained from Automatic Identification
System (AIS) broadcasts a detailed characterization of the individual ship
types and of features affecting gas and particulate emissions is provided.
Particle number EFs (average 2.6e+16 # kg−1) and PM1
mass EFs (average 2.4 g kg−1) tend to increase with the fuel
sulfur content. Observed PM1 composition of the vessel emissions was
dominated by organic matter (72%), sulfate (22%) and black carbon
(6%) while PAHs only account for 0.2% of the submicron aerosol mass.
Measurements of gaseous components showed an increase of SO2 (average
EF: 7.7 g kg−1) and NOx (average EF: 53 g kg−1) while O3
decreased when a ship plume reached the sampling site. The particle number
size distributions of the vessels are generally characterized by a bimodal
size distribution, with the nucleation mode in the 10–20 nm diameter range
and a combustion aerosol mode centered at about 35 nm while particles
\textgreater 1 μm were not found. "High particle number emitters"
are characterized by a dominant nucleation mode. By contrast, increased
particle concentrations around 150 nm primarily occurred for "high black
carbon emitters". Classifying the vessels according to their gross tonnage
shows a decrease of the number, black carbon and PAH EFs while EFs of
SO2, NO, NO2, NOx, AMS species (particulate organics,
sulfate) and PM1 mass concentration increase with increasing gross
Citation: Diesch, J.-M., Drewnick, F., Klimach, T., and Borrmann, S.: Investigation of gaseous and particulate emissions from various marine vessel types measured on the banks of the Elbe in Northern Germany, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3603-3618, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3603-2013, 2013.