1Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
2Air Quality Research, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
3Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, Finland
4Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
5Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
6FINNARP logistics, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Received: 06 Nov 2012 – Discussion started: 19 Dec 2012
Abstract. Over Antarctica, aerosol particles originate almost entirely from marine areas, with minor contribution from long-range transported dust or anthropogenic material. The Antarctic continent itself, unlike all other continental areas, has been thought to be practically free of aerosol sources. Here we present evidence of local aerosol production associated with melt-water ponds in continental Antarctica. We show that in air masses passing such ponds, new aerosol particles are efficiently formed and these particles grow up to sizes where they may act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The precursor vapours responsible for aerosol formation and growth originate very likely from highly abundant cyanobacteria Nostoc commune (Vaucher) communities of local ponds. This is the first time freshwater vegetation has been identified as an aerosol precursor source. The influence of the new source on clouds and climate may increase in future Antarctica, and possibly elsewhere undergoing accelerating summer melting of semi-permanent snow cover.
Revised: 01 Mar 2013 – Accepted: 07 Mar 2013 – Published: 02 Apr 2013
Kyrö, E.-M., Kerminen, V.-M., Virkkula, A., Dal Maso, M., Parshintsev, J., Ruíz-Jimenez, J., Forsström, L., Manninen, H. E., Riekkola, M.-L., Heinonen, P., and Kulmala, M.: Antarctic new particle formation from continental biogenic precursors, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3527-3546, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3527-2013, 2013.