Source apportionment of particles at Station Nord, North East Greenland during 2008–2010 using COPREM and PMF analysis 1Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
04 Jan 2013
2Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
3Adjunct Professor University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, Niels Bohrs Allé 1, 5230 Odense M, Denmark
4Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
Received: 14 Jul 2012 – Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 17 Sep 2012 Abstract. In order to develop strategies for controlling and reducing Arctic air
pollution, there is a need to understand the basic mechanisms for
determining the fate of air pollution in the Arctic. Sources of atmospheric
particles at Station Nord (81° 36' N, 16° 40' W) in North East
Greenland were evaluated for a two-year period from March 2008 to February
2010. Source apportionment using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and
COnstrained Physical REceptor Model (COPREM) was based on measurements of
black carbon, elements (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga,
As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pb) and inorganic ions (SO2, SO42−,
Na+, NH4+, NO3−, Cl2−. In general, source
apportionment results by PMF and COPREM showed good agreement. Five sources
adequately explained the measurements, which included a Marine and a Soil source of
natural origin and three additional anthropogenic sources, which were all
influenced by metal industries. One anthropogenic source was dominated by Zn
of which air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle
Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model suggested a Canadian Arctic
origin, despite certain influences from Southern and Eastern origins.
Another anthropogenic source was characterised by high concentrations of Pb
and As, which has been historically referred to as a Combustion source at Station Nord.
The impacts of large-scale industry in Siberia, Russia were evident through
high Cu concentrations in both the Combustion source and an additional Cu/Ni source.
Revised: 17 Dec 2012 – Accepted: 17 Dec 2012 – Published: 04 Jan 2013
Br correlated well with the anthropogenic species S and Pb though the
elements are unlikely to have a common origin. More likely, sulphuric acid
aerosols serve as transport containers for Br species of marine origin. Of particular relevance to climate, sources of black carbon
were identified to be mainly anthropogenic and most probably of Siberian
Citation: Nguyen, Q. T., Skov, H., Sørensen, L. L., Jensen, B. J., Grube, A. G., Massling, A., Glasius, M., and Nøjgaard, J. K.: Source apportionment of particles at Station Nord, North East Greenland during 2008–2010 using COPREM and PMF analysis, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 35-49, doi:10.5194/acp-13-35-2013, 2013.