1Asia Center for Air Pollution Research, 1182 Sowa, Nishi-ku, Niigata, Niigata, 950-2144, Japan
2National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8506, Japan
3Japan Automobile Research Institute, 2530, Karima, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0822, Japan
4Japan Petroleum Energy Center, 4-3-9 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0001, Japan
5Ocean Policy Research Foundation, 3-4-10 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0001, Japan
6European Commission, Joint Research Center, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027, Ispra, Varese, Italy
7The Institute of Behavioral Sciences, 2-9 Ichigayahonmura-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-0845, Japan
8Mitsubishi UFJ Research and Consulting Co., Ltd., 5-11-2 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8501, Japan
Received: 25 Mar 2013 – Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 17 Apr 2013
Abstract. We have updated the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) as version 2.1. REAS 2.1 includes most major air pollutants and greenhouse gases from each year during 2000 and 2008 and following areas of Asia: East, Southeast, South, and Central Asia and the Asian part of Russia. Emissions are estimated for each country and region using updated activity data and parameters. Monthly gridded data with a 0.25° × 0.25° resolution are also provided. Asian emissions for each species in 2008 are as follows (with their growth rate from 2000 to 2008): 56.9 Tg (+34%) for SO2, 53.9 Tg (+54%) for NOx, 359.5 Tg (+34%) for CO, 68.5 Tg (+46%) for non-methane volatile organic compounds, 32.8 Tg (+17%) for NH3, 36.4 Tg (+45%) for PM10, 24.7 Tg (+42%) for PM2.5, 3.03 Tg (+35%) for black carbon, 7.72 Tg (+21%) for organic carbon, 182.2 Tg (+32%) for CH4, 5.80 Tg (+18%) for N2O, and 16.0 Pg (+57%) for CO2. By country, China and India were respectively the largest and second largest contributors to Asian emissions. Both countries also had higher growth rates in emissions than others because of their continuous increases in energy consumption, industrial activities, and infrastructure development. In China, emission mitigation measures have been implemented gradually. Emissions of SO2 in China increased from 2000 to 2006 and then began to decrease as flue-gas desulphurization was installed to large power plants. On the other hand, emissions of air pollutants in total East Asia except for China decreased from 2000 to 2008 owing to lower economic growth rates and more effective emission regulations in Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. Emissions from other regions generally increased from 2000 to 2008, although their relative shares of total Asian emissions are smaller than those of China and India. Tables of annual emissions by country and region broken down by sub-sector and fuel type, and monthly gridded emission data with a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° for the major sectors are available from the following URL: http://www.nies.go.jp/REAS/.
Revised: 13 Sep 2013 – Accepted: 09 Oct 2013 – Published: 13 Nov 2013
Citation: Kurokawa, J., Ohara, T., Morikawa, T., Hanayama, S., Janssens-Maenhout, G., Fukui, T., Kawashima, K., and Akimoto, H.: Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases over Asian regions during 2000–2008: Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) version 2, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11019-11058, doi:10.5194/acp-13-11019-2013, 2013.