1Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
2Department of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
3Finnish Meteorological Institute, Kuopio Unit, P.O. Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland
4Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU, UK
5Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101, Helsinki, Finland
6Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
*now at: Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1047, 0316 Oslo, Norway
Received: 08 Feb 2012 – Published in Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.: 17 Feb 2012
Abstract. Clouds cool Earth's climate by reflecting 20% of the incoming solar energy, while also trapping part of the outgoing radiation. The effect of human activities on clouds is poorly understood, but the present-day anthropogenic cooling via changes of cloud albedo and lifetime could be of the same order as warming from anthropogenic addition in CO2. Soluble trace gases can increase water condensation to particles, possibly leading to activation of smaller aerosols and more numerous cloud droplets. We have studied the effect of nitric acid on the aerosol indirect effect with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5.5-HAM2. Including the nitric acid effect in the model increases cloud droplet number concentrations globally by 7%. The nitric acid contribution to the present-day cloud albedo effect was found to be −0.32 W m−2 and to the total indirect effect −0.46 W m−2. The contribution to the cloud albedo effect is shown to increase to −0.37 W m−2 by the year 2100, if considering only the reductions in available cloud condensation nuclei. Overall, the effect of nitric acid can play a large part in aerosol cooling during the following decades with decreasing SO2 emissions and increasing NOx and greenhouse gases.
Revised: 02 Aug 2012 – Accepted: 14 Aug 2012 – Published: 22 Aug 2012
Citation: Makkonen, R., Romakkaniemi, S., Kokkola, H., Stier, P., Räisänen, P., Rast, S., Feichter, J., Kulmala, M., and Laaksonen, A.: Brightening of the global cloud field by nitric acid and the associated radiative forcing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 7625-7633, doi:10.5194/acp-12-7625-2012, 2012.