A high-resolution emission inventory of primary pollutants for the Huabei region, China
1Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, China
2Energy, Environment and Water Research Centre, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus
3Department of Atmospheric Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany
*now at: Northwest Electric Power Design Institute, Chinese Power Engineering Consulting Group, Xian, China
**now at: Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA
***now at: The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Physics of Weather and climate section, Trieste, Italy
Abstract. Huabei, located between 32° N and 42° N, is part of eastern China and includes administratively the Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, Hebei and Shanxi Provinces, and Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region. Over the past decades, the region has experienced dramatic changes in air quality and climate, and has become a major focus of environmental research in China. Here we present a new inventory of air pollutant emissions in Huabei for the year 2003 developed as part of the project Influence of Pollution on Aerosols and Cloud Microphysics in North China (IPAC-NC).
Our estimates are based on data from the statistical yearbooks of the state, provinces and local districts, including major sectors and activities of power generation, industrial energy consumption, industrial processing, civil energy consumption, crop straw burning, oil and solvent evaporation, manure, and motor vehicles. The emission factors are selected from a variety of literature and those from local measurements in China are used whenever available. The estimated total emissions in the Huabei administrative region in 2003 are 4.73 Tg SO2, 2.72 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 1.77 Tg VOC, 24.14 Tg CO, 2.03 Tg NH3, 4.57 Tg PM10, 2.42 Tg PM2.5, 0.21 Tg EC, and 0.46 Tg OC.
For model convenience, we consider a larger Huabei region with Shandong, Henan and Liaoning Provinces included in our inventory. The estimated total emissions in the larger Huabei region in 2003 are: 9.55 Tg SO2, 5.27 Tg NOx (in equivalent NO2), 3.82 Tg VOC, 46.59 Tg CO, 5.36 Tg NH3, 10.74 Tg PM10, 5.62 Tg PM2.5, 0.41 Tg EC, and 0.99 Tg OC. The estimated emission rates are projected into grid cells at a horizontal resolution of 0.1° latitude by 0.1° longitude. Our gridded emission inventory consists of area sources, which are classified into industrial, civil, traffic, and straw burning sectors, and large industrial point sources, which include 345 sets of power plants, iron and steel plants, cement plants, and chemical plants.
The estimated regional NO2 emissions are about 2–3% (administrative Huabei region) or 5% (larger Huabei region) of the global anthropogenic NO2 emissions. We compare our inventory (IPAC-NC) with the global emission inventory EDGAR-CIRCE and the Asian emission inventory INTEX-B. Except for a factor of 3 lower EC emission rate in comparison with INTEX-B, the biases of the total emissions of most primary air pollutants in Huabei estimated in our inventory, with respect to EDGAR-CIRCE and INTEX-B, generally range from −30% to +40%. Large differences up to a factor of 2–3 for local emissions in some areas (e.g. Beijing and Tianjin) are found. It is recommended that the inventories based on the activity rates and emission factors for each specific year should be applied in future modeling work related to the changes in air quality and atmospheric chemistry over this region.