Characteristics of immersion freezing nuclei at the South Pole station in Antarctica K. Ardon-Dryer1,2, Z. Levin1,3, and R. P. Lawson4 1Department of Geophysics and Planetary Science, Tel Aviv University, Israel 2The Porter School of Environmental Studies, Tel Aviv University, Israel 3Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus 4SPEC Incorporated, Boulder, Colorado, USA
Abstract. The effectiveness of aerosols as immersion freezing nuclei at the South Pole
station was investigated during January and February 2009 using the
FRIDGE-TAU. The analysis consisted of testing the freezing temperature of
about 100–130 drops per sample containing aerosols collected at ground level
and on a balloon lifted to different heights. All the drops froze between
−18 °C and −27 °C. The temperature in which 50 % of the drops
froze occurred at −24 °C, while nuclei concentration of 1 L−1 at
−23 °C was calculated. Meteorological conditions such as wind speed, ice
precipitation as well as the trajectories of the air masses affected the ice
nuclei concentrations. Higher concentrations were observed on days when the
winds were stronger or when the air mass originated from the sea.
Citation: Ardon-Dryer, K., Levin, Z., and Lawson, R. P.: Characteristics of immersion freezing nuclei at the South Pole station in Antarctica, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4015-4024, doi:10.5194/acp-11-4015-2011, 2011.