1Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, CB2 1EW, UK
*now at: The School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK
Received: 09 Aug 2011 – Discussion started: 17 Aug 2011
Abstract. Many important atmospheric aerosol processes depend on the chemical composition of the aerosol, e.g. water uptake and particle cloud interactions. Atmospheric ageing processes, such as oxidation reactions, significantly and continuously change the chemical composition of aerosol particles throughout their lifetime. These ageing processes are often poorly understood. In this study we utilize an aerosol flow tube set up and an ultra-high resolution mass spectrometer to explore the effect of relative humidity (RH) in the range of <5–90% on the ozonolysis of maleic acid aerosol which is employed as model organic aerosol system. Due to the slow reaction kinetics relatively high ozone concentrations of 160–200 ppm were used to achieve an appreciable degree of oxidation of maleic acid. The effect of oxidative ageing on the hygroscopicity of maleic acid particles is also investigated using an electrodynamic balance and thermodynamic modelling. RH has a profound effect on the oxidation of maleic acid particles. Very little oxidation is observed at RH < 50% and the only observed reaction products are glyoxylic acid and formic acid. In comparison, when RH > 50% there are about 15 oxidation products identified. This increased oxidation was observed even when the particles were exposed to high humidities long after a low RH ozonolysis reaction. This result might have negative implications for the use of water as an extraction solvent for the analysis of oxidized organic aerosols. These humidity-dependent differences in the composition of the ozonolyzed aerosol demonstrate that water is both a key reactant in the oxidation scheme and a determinant of particle phase and hence diffusivity. The measured chemical composition of the processed aerosol is used to model the hygroscopic growth, which compares favourably with water uptake results from the electrodynamic balance measurements. A reaction mechanism is presented which takes into account the RH dependent observations. This study emphasises the importance of studying the combined effects of several atmospheric parameters such as oxidants and RH to accurately describe the complex oxidation scheme of organic aerosols.
Revised: 11 Nov 2011 – Accepted: 21 Nov 2011 – Published: 07 Dec 2011
Gallimore, P. J., Achakulwisut, P., Pope, F. D., Davies, J. F., Spring, D. R., and Kalberer, M.: Importance of relative humidity in the oxidative ageing of organic aerosols: case study of the ozonolysis of maleic acid aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 12181-12195, doi:10.5194/acp-11-12181-2011, 2011.