1School of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA
2Department of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA, USA
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, CO, USA
4Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP), University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
5Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, USA
6National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, USA
7Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA
8Universit de Toulouse, UPS, LA (Laboratoire d'Arologie), 14 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400, Toulouse, France
9CNRS, LA (Laboratoire d'A'erologie), 31400 Toulouse, France
*now at: Woodrow Wilson School of International and Public Affairs, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA
Received: 18 Aug 2009 – Discussion started: 24 Sep 2009
Abstract. We combine CO column measurements from the MOPITT, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, and TES satellite instruments in a full-year (May 2004–April 2005) global inversion of CO sources at 4°×5° spatial resolution and monthly temporal resolution. The inversion uses the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM) and its adjoint applied to MOPITT, AIRS, and SCIAMACHY. Observations from TES, surface sites (NOAA/GMD), and aircraft (MOZAIC) are used for evaluation of the a posteriori solution. Using GEOS-Chem as a common intercomparison platform shows global consistency between the different satellite datasets and with the in situ data. Differences can be largely explained by different averaging kernels and a priori information. The global CO emission from combustion as constrained in the inversion is 1350 Tg a−1. This is much higher than current bottom-up emission inventories. A large fraction of the correction results from a seasonal underestimate of CO sources at northern mid-latitudes in winter and suggests a larger-than-expected CO source from vehicle cold starts and residential heating. Implementing this seasonal variation of emissions solves the long-standing problem of models underestimating CO in the northern extratropics in winter-spring. A posteriori emissions also indicate a general underestimation of biomass burning in the GFED2 inventory. However, the tropical biomass burning constraints are not quantitatively consistent across the different datasets.
Revised: 12 Jan 2010 – Accepted: 12 Jan 2010 – Published: 01 Feb 2010
Kopacz, M., Jacob, D. J., Fisher, J. A., Logan, J. A., Zhang, L., Megretskaia, I. A., Yantosca, R. M., Singh, K., Henze, D. K., Burrows, J. P., Buchwitz, M., Khlystova, I., McMillan, W. W., Gille, J. C., Edwards, D. P., Eldering, A., Thouret, V., and Nedelec, P.: Global estimates of CO sources with high resolution by adjoint inversion of multiple satellite datasets (MOPITT, AIRS, SCIAMACHY, TES), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 855-876, doi:10.5194/acp-10-855-2010, 2010.