1Finnish Meteorological Institute, Earth Observation, Helsinki, Finland
2Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Université Versailles St.-Quentin, CNRS-INSU, Verrières-le-Buisson, France
3Institut d'Aéronomie Spatiale de Belgique, Brussels, Belgium
4ACRI-ST, Sophia Antipolis, France
5European Space Research Institute (ESRIN), European Space Agency, Frascati, Italy
Abstract. The Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars (GOMOS) instrument onboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT satellite measures ozone, NO2, NO3, H2O, O2, and aerosols using the stellar occultation method. Global coverage, good vertical resolution and the self-calibrating measurement method make GOMOS observations a promising data set for building various climatologies and time series. In this paper we present GOMOS nighttime measurements of ozone, NO2, and NO3 during six years 2002–2008. Using zonal averages we show the time evolution of the vertical profiles as a function of latitude. In order to get continuous coverage in time we restrict the latitudinal region to 50° S–50° N. Time development is analysed by fitting constant, annual and semi-annual terms as well as solar and QBO proxies to the daily time series. Ozone data cover the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). NO2 and NO3 data cover the stratosphere. In addition to detailed analysis of profiles we derive total column distributions using the fitted time series.
The time-independent constant term is determined with a good accuracy (better than 1%) for all the three gases. The median retrieval accuracy for the annual and semi-annual term varies in the range 5–20%. For ozone the annual terms dominate in the stratosphere giving early winter ozone maxima at mid-latitudes. Above the ozone layer the annual terms change the phase which results in ozone summer maximum up to 80 km. In the MLT the annual terms dominate up to 80 km where the semiannual terms start to grow. In the equatorial MLT the semi-annual terms dominate the temporal evolution whereas in the mid-latitude MLT annual and semi-annual terms compete evenly. In the equatorial stratosphere the QBO dominates the time development but the solar term is too weak to be determined. In the MLT above 85 km the solar term grows significantly and ozone has 15–20% dependence on the solar cycle. For NO2 below 32 km the annual summer maxima dominates at mid-latitudes whereas in the equatorial region a strong QBO prevails. In northern mid-latitudes a strong solar term appears in the upper stratosphere. For NO3 the annual variation dominates giving rise to summer maxima. The NO3 distribution is controlled by temperature and ozone.