Journal cover Journal topic
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7505-7513, 2010
© Author(s) 2010. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
13 Aug 2010
Measured black carbon deposition on the Sierra Nevada snow pack and implication for snow pack retreat
O. L. Hadley1, C. E. Corrigan2, T. W. Kirchstetter1, S. S. Cliff3, and V. Ramanathan2
1Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA
2Climate, Atmospheric Science, and Physical Oceanography Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, USA
3Department of Applied Science, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA

Abstract. Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

Citation: Hadley, O. L., Corrigan, C. E., Kirchstetter, T. W., Cliff, S. S., and Ramanathan, V.: Measured black carbon deposition on the Sierra Nevada snow pack and implication for snow pack retreat, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 7505-7513, doi:10.5194/acp-10-7505-2010, 2010.
Search ACP
Final Revised Paper
Discussion Paper