1Japan Agency for Marine–Earth Science and Technology, 3173-25, Showa–machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0001, Japan
2LAPC and NZC, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10029, China
3Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga Park 6–1, Kasuga 816-8580, Fukuoka, Japan
4Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10029, China
5National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16–2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
6Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
*now at: Asia Center for Air Pollution Research, 1182 Sowa, Nishi-ku, Niigata, Japan
Abstract. The impact of open crop residual burning (OCRB) on O3, CO, black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) concentrations over Central Eastern China (CEC; 30–40° N, 111–120° E), during the Mount Tai Experiment in 2006 (MTX2006) was evaluated using a regional chemical transport model, the Models–3 Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ). To investigate these pollutants during MTX2006 in June 2006, daily gridded OCRB emissions were developed based on a bottom-up methodology using land cover and hotspot information from satellites. This model system involving daily emissions captured monthly–averages of observed concentrations and day-to-day variations in the patterns of O3, CO, BC and OC at the summit of Mount Tai (36° N, 117° E, 1534 m a.s.l., Shandong Province of the People's Republic of China) with high correlation coefficients between the model and observations ranging from 0.55 to 0.69. These results were significantly improved from those using annual biomass burning emissions. For monthly-averaged O3, the simulated concentration of 80.8 ppbv was close to the observed concentration (81.3 ppbv). The MTX2006 period was roughly divided into two parts: 1) polluted days with heavy OCRB in the first half of June; and 2) cleaner days with negligible field burning in the latter half of June. Additionally, the first half of June was characterized by two high-pollution episodes during 5–7 and 12–13 June, separated by a relatively cleaner intermediate period during 8–10 June. In the first high-pollution episode, the model captured the high O3, CO, BC and OC concentrations at the summit of Mount Tai, which were associated with OCRB over southern CEC and subsequent northward transport. For this episode, the impacts of OCRB emissions on pollutant concentrations were 26% (O3), 62% (CO), 79% (BC) and 80% (OC) at the summit of Mount Tai. The daily OCRB emissions were an essential factor in the evaluation of these pollutants during MTX2006. These emissions have a large impact not only on primary pollutants but also on secondary pollutants, such as O3, in the first half of June over northeastern Asia. The model reproduced reasonably well the variation of these pollutants in MTX2006, but underestimated daily averages of both CO and BC by a factor of 2, when using emission data from almost solely anthropogenic fuel sources in the latter half of the observation period when field burning can be neglected.