1Institut für Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphäre 2, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany
2Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
3Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
4Leibnitz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
*present address: IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden
Abstract. The ozonolysis of α-pinene has been investigated under dry and humid conditions in the temperature range of 243–303 K. The results provided new insight into the role of water and temperature in the degradation mechanism of α-pinene and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The SOA yields were higher at humid conditions than at dry conditions. The water induced gain was largest for the lowest temperatures investigated (243 and 253 K). The increase in the SOA yields was dominated by water (and temperature) effects on the organic product distribution, whilst physical uptake of water was negligible. This will be demonstrated for the example of pinonaldehyde (PA) which was formed as a major product in the humid experiments with total molar yields of 0.30±0.06 at 303 K and 0.15±0.03 at 243 K. In the dry experiments the molar yields of PA were only 0.07±0.02 at 303 K and 0.02±0.02 at 253 K. The observed partitioning of PA as a function of the SOA mass present at 303 K limited the effective vapour pressure of pure PA pPA0 to the range of 0.01–0.001 Pa, 3–4 orders of magnitude lower than literature values. The corresponding mass partitioning coefficient was determined to KPA=0.005±0.004 m3 μg−1 and the total mass yield αPAtotal=0.37±0.08. At 303 K PA preferably stayed in the gas-phase, whereas at 253 K and 243 K it exclusively partitioned into the particulate phase. PA could thus account at least for half of the water induced gain in SOA mass at 253 K. The corresponding effect was negligible at 303 K because the PA preferably remained in the gas-phase.
The yield of OH radicals, which were produced in the ozonolysis, was indirectly determined by means of the yield of cyclohexanone formed in the reaction of OH radicals with cyclohexane. OH yields of the α-pinene ozonolysis were determined to 0.67±0.17 for humid and 0.54±0.13 for dry conditions at 303 K, indicating a water dependent path of OH radical formation. For 253 and 243 K OH yields could be estimated to 0.5 with no significant difference between the dry and humid experiments. This is the first clear indication for OH radical formation by α-pinene ozonolysis at such low temperatures.