Physical properties of iodate solutions and the deliquescence of crystalline I2O5 and HIO3
1School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*now at: Laboratory for Atmospheric and Climate Science (CIAC), CSIC, 45007 Toledo, Spain
**now at: School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
Abstract. Secondary aerosol produced from marine biogenic sources in algal-rich coastal locations will initially be composed of iodine oxide species, most likely I2O5, or its hydrated form HIO3, formed as a result of iodine gas-phase chemistry. At present, there is no quantitative hygroscopic data for these compounds and very little data available for iodate solutions (HIO3 and I2O5 share a common aqueous phase). With increased interest in the role of such aerosol in the marine atmosphere, we have conducted studies of (i) the deliquescence behaviour of crystalline HIO3 and I2O5 at 273–303 K, (ii) the efflorescence behaviour of aqueous iodate solution droplets, and (iii) properties (water activity, density, and viscosity) of subsaturated and saturated iodate solutions.
The deliquescence of I2O5 crystals at 293 K was observed to occur at a relative humidity (DRH) of 80.8±1.0%, whereas for HIO3, a DRH of 85.0±1.0% was measured. These values are consistent with measured water activity values for saturated I2O5 and HIO3 solutions at 293 K of 0.80±0.01 and 0.84±0.01 respectively. At all temperatures, DRH values for HIO3 crystals were observed to be higher than for those of I2O5. The temperature-dependent DRH data, along with solubility and water activity data were used to evaluate the enthalpy of solution (ΔHsol) for HIO3 and I2O5. A ΔHsol value of 8.3±0.7 kJ mol−1 was determined for HIO3 which is consistent with a literature value of 8.8 kJ mol−1. For I2O5, we report for the first time its solubility at various temperatures and ΔHsol = 12.4±0.6 kJ mol−1. The measured water activity values confirm that aqueous iodate solutions are strongly non-ideal, consistent with previous reports of complex ion formation and molecular aggregation.